The Narbis Attention Program is based on NASA research patent #5,377,100
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National Institute of Mental Health, (NIMH), Pilot Explorations of Neurofeedback issues in ADHD, using SmartBrain Technologies, (September, 2008).
We are excited to announce that NIMH, (National Institute of Mental Health), has funded an ADHD research study using the SmartBrain Technology. The principal investigator, L. Eugene Arnold, M.D., M.Ed., Professor Emeritus of Psychiatry, at Ohio State University is an internationally renowned researcher in the treatments of ADHD and will be heading up this study. This study is planned to begin in the fall of 2008.
A Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial of EEG Neurofeedback Treatment for Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), (2002), A Double Blind, Randomized, Sham Treatment Study for ADHD boys aged 9-11, funded by Johnson and Johnson Consumer Products Companies, Inc., has just been completed, but is not yet published. This research was presented at the ISNR Conference, 2005.
Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, Volume 14, (2005).
A comprehensive review of the research on Neurofeedback has been published in a special issue of devoted to Emerging Interventions. In theintroductory chapter, the volume editors assess the degree of scientific support for Neurofeedback using standards developed by the child psychiatry professional organization (AACAP). They conclude that Neurofeedback uniformly shows significant benefit for 70 to 80% of participants, with an effect size for Neurofeedback equivalent to that of stimulants, as measured by computerized tests of attention and impulsivity (continuous performance tests) as well as standardized behavioral rating scales.
Rossiter and LaVaque, Monastra, Fuchs- Four controlled group studies of the effects of EEG Biofeedback in treating ADHD have been published in peer reviewed journals. The research designs attempted to control for maturational and other nonspecific factors (e.g., age, intelligence, symptom severity before initiating treatment). Three of the four studies also compared the effects of EEG Biofeedback with a bona fide treatment for ADHD that has been classified as efficacious (i.e., stimulant medication);
Beauregard, M & Levesque, J, (2006). Functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the effects of EEG Neurfeedback training on the neural bases of selective attention and response inhibition in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
This study showed that Neurofeedback with children with ADHD resulted in normalization of brain activation levels in the frontal circuits in the brain that are involved in attention. As shown in pre- and post-Neurofeedback fMRI studies, blood oxygenation levels of 24 ADHD participants normalized with Neurofeedback training, with increased blood oxygenation in the prefrontal cortex bilaterally, and in the anterior portion of the cingulate gyrus. No such changes were seen in non-treatment controls.
Berkley Medical Journal, Issues 2002, by Gordon Kwan. Play Attention! Can custom-made video games help kids with Attention Deficit Disorder.
For children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), life can feel like a never-ending video game. They are wired–restless, impulsive, and easily distracted. Their minds are constantly bombarded with different elements of reality that compete for their attention.
Effectiveness of Video Game EEG Neurofeedback on ADHD. (2000). NASA and Eastern Virginia Medical School conducted a research study to determine the effectiveness of video game EEG Neurofeedback on ADHD. In one research group kids received standard EEG Neurofeedback for the treatment of ADHD. In the other research group, kids played brain wave enabled video games. Both the video game and standard EEG Neurofeedback groups improved significantly on most main ADHD outcome measures. No significant difference in treatment change was seen in group comparisons. Parents’ appraisal of treatment effect on ADHD was more positive for the video game group. The treatment was rated significantly more enjoyable by both parents and children. Trends on pre-post Brain Maps indicate that the video game training may have advantages in creating more positive EEG effect in the therapeutic direction.
In a recent paper Update on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder published in Current Opinion in Pediatrics Katie Campbell Daley, (April, 2004), reviewed the research and practice standards on treatment of ADHD. Dr. Campbell serves on the staff of the Department of Medicine, Children’s Hospital Boston and in the Department of Pediatrics of the Harvard Medical School. She concluded:
Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders- Substantial validation research has also been completed on neurofeedback for epilepsy or seizure disorder.
Anxiety and Neurofeedback- Research on neurofeedback for anxiety is less well developed than for ADHD and epilepsy.
Substance Abuse- In research with adults with substance use disorder (PSUD) multiple random controlled trials (RCT’s) as well as uncontrolled studies have shown protocol specific changes in the EEG.
Traumatic Brain Injury -Reviews of the literature on treatment for traumatic brain injury (TBI) and reading disabilities (RD) indicate that very few of the commonly used interventions have shown efficacy in formal research, and that the effect size of these techniques is usually quite small.
NASA Research: Counter-Response Training via Physiological Self-Regulation During Flight Simulation, (1997).
Pope, A. T., and Bogart, E. H. Identification of Hazardous Awareness States in Monitoring Environments. SAE Technical Paper No. 921136, SAE 1992 Transactions: Journal of Aerospace, Section 1 – Volume 101, 1993, pp. 449-457.
Progress in Efficacy Studies of EEG Biofeedback for ADHD. Roger deBeus, Ph.D., Eastern Virginia Medical School. Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association Toronto, May 2006. deBeus et. al., is the first randomized controlled trial using a double-blind paradigm that incorporates a “sham” EEG Biofeedback treatment.
ADD/ADHD, Learning and Development Disabilities, and Academic Cognitive Enhancement.
Bibliography: A comprehensive body of research article exist dating from 1978 to 2006.